This tutorial shows how to use Mongoose Library at the bare metal level, using MIP (a bare-metal embedded TCP/IP stack designed specifically for Mongoose), and running on an STM32 Nucleo-F746ZG development board.
This tutorial covers a hardware example based on the device dashboard tutorial. You might want to read and follow that tutorial for the inner workings of the dashboard itself. All files in the example belong to the particular hardware implementation; Mongoose itself and all Mongoose-related functions are pulled by the Makefile from their location in the repository. The full source code is at https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose/tree/master/examples/stm32/nucleo-f746zg-baremetal
This example is a plain gcc make-based project. The relevant files are:
mcu.h: provides all necessary MCU support, as this project is not CMSIS-based
boot.c: provides the MCU low-level initialization, vector table and default exception handlers
syscalls.c: provides an abstraction layer for those system functions Mongoose expects
main.c: here we do our main job, initializing the MCU, Mongoose, the network, and calling the event manager
Makefile: a standard make file that performs the compilation and linking process
Below is a general process outline:
- The board IP addressing will be provided by a DHCP server. If you want to set a static configuration, set IP address, network mask and gateway in
main.c; see below
- Build the example (see below) and run it on a development board
- The firmware initializes the network
- After initialization, the application starts Mongoose's event loop and blinks a blue LED
- Once the blue LED starts blinking, the example is ready
- Open your web browser and navigate to the board IP address, you should see a nice device dashboard
Build and run
It is assumed you're using Linux or Mac as a workstation, you have Docker installed, and your user is able to run it. If in doubt, check
$ docker ps
We will also use the stlink flash utility
Start a terminal in the project directory; clone the Mongoose Library repo, and run the
$ git clone https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose $ cd mongoose/examples/stm32/nucleo-f746zg-baremetal $ make build
In order to flash this recently built firmware to your board, plug it in a USB port and execute:
$ make flash
As long as there is only one board plugged in, stlink will find it; though we need to know the serial port device to be able to get the log information. It is probably
When the firmware is flashed, the board should signal its state by blinking the blue LED. We now need to know the IP address of the board to connect to it. If we used DHCP, as it is the default, we can check our DHCP server logs or see the device logs. Let's do this.
To connect to the board, in this example we'll be using picocom; we configure it for 115200bps and to add a carriage return. Use the proper serial device.
$ picocom /dev/ttyACM0 -i -b 115200 --imap=lfcrlf picocom v2.2 ... Terminal ready 0 2 main.c:76:main Init done, starting main loop 6 3 mongoose.c:3488:mg_listen 1 0x0 http://0.0.0.0 ... b4e 2 mongoose.c:6382:onstatechange READY, IP: 192.168.69.232
Now start a browser on
IP_ADDRESSis the board's IP address printed on the serial console. You should see a login screen.
From here on, if you want to try the dashboard features please go to the device dashboard tutorial and follow some of the steps depicted there.
How it works
This example can be divided in the following blocks:
- Provide a time base in milliseconds
- Initialize the microcontroller for this particular board
- Initialize the Ethernet controller
- Initialize Mongoose
- Initialize the networking stack
- Run Mongoose
- Additional support handlers like the HardFault handler and the EXTI handler for reading a button
Network operations need a time base to calculate timeouts. Mongoose supports a number of well-known architectures, but since here we are working at the bare-metal level, we need to provide our own custom function. The necessary actions are:
MG_ENABLE_CUSTOM_MILLIS=1which is done in the Makefile
- Provide a custom
In this example, this function is based on ARM's SysTick:
MCU and board initialization
This example, and the MIP stack itself, don't use CMSIS nor any other third-party libraries. Microcontroller support is provided by the
boot.c files. In our main function, we call these functions to initialize the MCU and those peripherals we are going to use:
Ethernet controller initialization
The Ethernet controller initialization follows. We need to enable the MAC GPIO pins to connect to the dev board PHY using RMII, configure the clocks, and reset the controller:
Then we initialize Mongoose, this is no different from what we always do in any example.
There is also a timer that we use to blink the blue LED
For more information on timers, check the timers tutorial.
MIP has to be enabled to be compiled in, and so Mongoose will work in association with it. This is done in the Makefile by defining
Then this networking stack has to be configured and initialized. This is done by calling
mip_init() and passing it pointers to a
struct mip_driver and any extra data that could be needed, and a pointer to a
struct mip_cfg. Inside this last structure:
- For DHCP: use 0 for IP, mask, and gateway
- For a static configuration, specify IP, mask, and gateway in network byte order
In this example, we use DHCP:
Note that, we also need to specify a unique MAC address. For this example we chose a fancy unicast locally administered address; for production runs you'll have to consider among several options, from adding a MAC address chip in your hardware design to registering with the IEEE Registration Authority.
Some drivers, as you have probably noticed, require extra data. In this case the STM32 driver can accept the setting for the divider that generates the MDIO clock. You can pass a null pointer in the driver data or a negative value for this parameter and the driver will calculate it for you, based on the clock configuration.
Then we run Mongoose. This is no different from what we always do in any example, though note that it should be run after network initialization. The logic is standard: initialize the event manager (as we already did), start a listener on port 80, and fall into an infinite event loop:
We have covered those aspects that are specific to the STM32 implementation, for the details on the application and the UI, please see the device dashboard tutorial.
HardFault and button handlers
Finally, a brief look at those exception handlers that will take care of handling the button and telling us of possible initialization errors once we embark ourselves on crafting our own custom application.
If you press the board button, the green LED will light:
If your code triggers an exception that is not handled, it will escalate to a HardFault and the red LED will blink:
In order to create your own Mongoose-enabled application you have several ways:
The obvious way, is to add the required functionality to this example. The example includes an important set of drivers. As we've seen in previous sections, there are functions to read and write to GPIOs and to handle interrupts.
If, for some reason, you can't use this example as a base (e.g.: you have your own big project to which you need to add Mongoose, or you'd rather use CMSIS and/or your preferred IDE), you can do the following:
- Add these project files to your project
.hfiles to your project
- Add Mongoose-specific configuration flags, see the Makefile
- Add the required preprocessor symbols:
- Provide a suitable time base for Mongoose and MIP
- Since your environment will surely be initializing the MCU, make sure the AHB clock frequency is at least 25 MHz; then follow the example
main()function from the Ethernet controller initialization
- Now write code similar to that in
main.c; for that you can read Mongoose documentation and follow our examples and tutorials